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当前位置:首页 >> 外语教育 >> 实用英语 >> 正文
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来源: 万学·海文     2008-10-29 10:31:00

Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative connotation.

So it seems paradoxical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we can even create entirely new brain cells that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks. 41_____________________________

All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, says Dawna Markova, author of “The Open Mind”. Researchers in the late 1960s discovered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. 42________________________

The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. 43__________________ This emphasis clearly leads to ordinary performance. On the contrary, knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.

44________________________ Figure out what has worked for you when you’ve learned in the past, and you can draw your own map for developing additional skills and behaviors for the future. Ms. Ryan says, “If you have a pathway to learning, use it because that’s going to be easier than creating an entirely new pathway in your brain.”

Ms. Ryan and Ms. Markova have found what they call three zones of existence: comfort, stretch and stress. Comfort is the realm of existing habit. Stress occurs when a challenge is so far beyond current experience as to be overwhelming. It’s that stretch zone in the middle — activities that feel a bit awkward and unfamiliar — where true change occurs.

Getting into the stretch zone is good for you, according to Ms. Ryan. It helps keep your brain healthy. It turns out that unless we continue to learn new things, which challenges our brains to create new pathways, they literally begin to weaken, which may result in brain diseases. She recommends practicing a technique called kaizen, which calls for tiny, continuous improvements.

45__________________________ That can be fatal in business, particularly for executives who surround themselves with like-thinkers. If seniority and promotion are based on similarity to those at the top, chances are strong that the company lacks intellectual diversity.

[A] This is where developing new habits comes in. If you’re an analytical or procedural thinker, you learn in different ways than someone who is inherently innovative or collaborative.

[B] Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consciously developing new habits. In fact, the more new things we try — the more we step outside our comfort zone — the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives.

[C] After the confusion, the brain begins organizing the new input, ultimately creating new synaptic connections if the process is repeated enough.

[D] “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system — that anyone can do anything,” explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book “This Year I Will...”

[E] But if, during creation of that new habit, the “Great Decider” steps in to protest against taking the unfamiliar path, people may keep doing the same thing over and over again.

[F] At teenage years, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.

[G] Simultaneously, take a look at how colleagues approach challenges, Ms. Markova suggests. We tend to believe that those who think the way we do are smarter than those who don’t.

Part B



二 、试题解析

【参考答案】 41. B 42. F 43. D 44. A 45. G


【解答过程】从文中给出的内容我们粗略地知道文章谈论的是有关开发新习惯引发创新的话题。本题缺失内容位于第二段的段尾,因此我们要回到空前的内容去寻找答题线索。前面提到如果我们有意识地去开发新的习惯, 就能让思维跳到创新的轨道上,由此,我们可以推测选填的内容可能会进一步解释这两者的关系。查看选项,B中“we can direct our change by consciously developing new habits”刚好涉及这一内容,而且“Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit” 刚好是对前面“consciously”这个词的回应和解释,因此本题答案为E。




【解答过程】 本题缺失内容在第四段的中间,而中间的内容必然会起到衔接上下的作用,因此我们需要参考该空的前后来寻找线索。空前的内容谈到“我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式”;空后的内容谈到“这种强调很明显导致了平庸表现”,这说明缺失的内容应该是有人进行了这种强调,查看选项,D正好与此有关,而且选项开头的“this” 刚好能指代前面的“我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式”,故答案为A。





【干扰项分析】 干扰项C,提到“After the confusion”,说明前面必然要提到混乱、困惑状态下的状况,而这在文章中根本找不到对应内容,故排除;干扰项E项中首次出现了“the “Great Decider”,文中只字未提该短语或做出任何相关的解释,如果选择会很突兀,故排除掉。




《开放的思想》一书的作者Dawna Markova说,我们所有人都以我们意识不到的方式来处理问题。20世纪60年代的研究人员发现,人类出生时就有能力以四种方式应对挑战:分析性,程序性,相关性(合作性)和创新性。但在青少年时期,大脑关闭一半的能力,仅保留哪些似乎在人生最初10多年中最有价值的哪些思维模式。

目前对于标准化测试的重视强调分析和程序,意味着我们之中很少有人生来就能运用我们的创造性和合作性思维模式。2006年出版的《今年我将…》一书作者M. J. Ryan 解释说:“这破坏了美国信仰体系中的最重要法则—每个人都能做成任何事情”。这种重视很明显导致了平庸表现。相反地,知道你擅长做的,并且多做会成就卓越。





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