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英文句子的組合
来源:世界新闻网     2007-6-22 15:22:00
 
     句子組合(sentence combining)的目的,就是把一些短句或「支離破碎」的句子(short and choppy sentence)連接起來,使句子更好,更有連貫性。
以下把一般常用的句子組合方法,舉例說明。

(1)把簡單型(simple form)的主詞、動詞、受詞或補助語連接起來,成為結合型(compound form):

例如:
Mr. Wang is applying for this position.
(王先生申請這個職位。)
Mr. Lee is also applying for this position.
(李先生也申請這個職位。)
上面兩句可組成:
Mr. Wang and Mr. Lee are both applying for this position.
(把Mr. Wang和Mr. Lee用and連接,成為結合主詞。)

My wife read the book for an hour last night.
(昨晚內人看了一小時的書。)
She also wrote a letter.
(她也寫了一封信。)
In addition, she cooked a nice dinner.
(還有,她燒了一頓好晚餐。)
上面三句可組成:
Last night my wife read the book for an hour wrote a letter and cooked a nice dinner.
(由於主詞相同,所以可把三個動詞read, wrote和cooked,加逗號,用and 連接,成結合動詞。)

The school gave Mr. Chang extra credits for field work.
(學校給張先生實地考察的額外學分。)
Mr. Lee was given extra credits as well.
(李先生也有額外的學分。)
上面兩句可組成:
The school gave Mr. Chang and Mr. Lee extra credits for field work.
(先把第二句的被動was given改為主動後,再把間接受詞Mr. Chang和Mr. Lee連接起來。)

The old man sat at a roadside stand.
(老人坐在路邊的攤位。)
He sold vegetables to passing drivers.
(他賣蔬菜給路過的駕駛。)
可組成:
The old man sat at a roadside stand and sold vegetables to passing drivers.
(把動詞sat和sold用and連接,成為結合動詞。)

I painted the house.
(我油漆房子。)
My wife painted the back fence.
(我內人油漆後院的籬笆。)
可組成:
My wife and I painted the house and the back fence.
(把直接受詞house和fence用and連接,成為結合受詞。)(為了禮貌,要把別人放在前面,不說:I and my wife…)

Mr. A called Mr. B a scholar.
(A先生稱B先生是位學者。)
He also called Mr. B a philanthropist.
(他也稱B先生是位慈善家。)
Finally, Mr. A called Mr. B a wonderful man.
(最後A先生稱B先生是位出色的人。)
上面三句可組成:
Mr. A called Mr. B a scholar, a philanthropist and a wonderful man.
(把受詞補助語scholar, philanthropist和wonderful man 用comma 分開,再用and連成一個簡單句。在and的前面,通常不加comma。)

The college library cost five million dollars.
(大學圖書館花了五百萬元。)
It took five years to complete.
(它費了五年的時間去完工。)
可組成:
The college library cost five million dollars and took five years to complete.
(因為it也指圖書館,所以可把直接受詞dollars和years連接起來。)

Mr. Chen will bring a camcorder for the party.
(陳先生要為宴會帶個錄像機。)
One of his friends will also bring a camcorder for the party.
(他的一位朋友也要為宴會帶個錄像機。)
可組成:
Both Mr. Chen and one of his friends will bring camcorders for the party.
(上面兩句不同的主詞,可用both…and連接,成為結合式主詞。)

The faculty members elected John(as the)chairperson.
(教師們選John當主席。)
They also named Bob(as the)secretary.
(他們也指定Bob當祕書。)
可組成:
The faculty members elected John chairperson and Bob secretary.
(動詞elected和named意義相似,故可省去一個。把受詞補助語chairperson和secretary用and連接起來。如把「as the」省去,就表示主席和祕書只是一種「office」的工作而已。)

In the fitting room, Mary tried on the swimsuit.
(在試衣間裡,Mary試穿泳衣。)
She looked in the full-length mirror.
(她在長鏡前照著。)
She then smiled.
(然後她笑了。)
上面三句可組成:
In the fitting room, Mary tried on the swimsuit, looked in the full-length mirror and smiled.
(由於主詞都是一樣,所以可省去其他的she。)

Mr. Wang\'s article stressed the terrible working condition in some of the Chinese factories.
(王先生的文章強調一些中國工廠不良的工作環境。)
It also described the cramped housing in Chinatown.
(該文也描述中國城的狹窄房子。)
Finally, it pointed out the filthy environment there.
(最後該文指出那裡不衛生的環境。)
以上三句可組成:
Mr. Wang\'s article stressed the terrible working condition in some of the Chinese factories and described the cramped housing and filthy environment in Chinatown.
(動詞described和pointed out意義相似,但與動詞stressed意思不同。為了保持原意,仍然要用兩個不同的動詞。)


(2)利用對等連接詞(coordinating conjunction)和帶有連接詞作用的副詞(conjunctive adverb),把意義相近的獨立句,連接起來,成為com-pound sentence。
常用的對等連接詞如:but , or , so , for , therefore , because , nor , either…or , neither…nor , yet 等。
帶有連接詞作用的副詞如:besides , furthermore , otherwise , consequently , accordingly , thus , notwithstanding , still , whereas 等。

例如:
John will go to a piano lesson.
(John要去上鋼琴課。)
Mary will stay home to baby sit her brother.
(Mary要在家照顧弟弟。)
上面兩句可組成:
John will go to a piano lesson and Mary will stay home to baby sit her sister.
(把這兩個獨立句,用and或but連接,成為結合句。)

Rain had soaked the football field.
(下雨使足球場濕透了。)
The game was rescheduled.
(比賽的日期重新安排。)
可組成:
Rain had soaked the football field; therefore, the game was rescheduled.
(把上面兩句獨立句,用therefore或so連接,成為compound sentence。)

They were the last to leave the house.
(他們是最後離開房子的。)
No one remembered to lock the door.
(沒有人記得鎖上門。)
可組成:
They were the last to leave the house, but no one remembered to lock the door.
(把上面兩句獨立句,用but連接,成為compound sentence。)

Unlike his friends, Mr. Lee enjoys his sideline job.
(不像他的朋友,李先生喜歡他的兼職。)
He likes to work seven days a week.
(他喜歡一星期工作七天。)
可組成:
Unlike his friends, Mr. Lee enjoys his sideline job; be-cause he likes to work seven days a week.
(上面兩句用because或therefore連接,成為com-pound sentence。當然,用不同的連詞,就有不同的意思。)

John will not attend the meeting.
(John不去參加開會。)
Bill will not go to the movie.
(Bill不去看電影。)
可組成:
John will not attend the meeting, nor will Bill go to the movie.
(用nor連接時,要把主詞Bill放在助動詞will的後面。不說:nor Bill will go…)

Bob lost his history notes.
(Bob遺失歷史筆記。)
He had to spend the entire Sunday copying his girl-friend\'s work.
(他要花整個星期天抄他女友的功課。)
可組成:
Bob lost his history notes; consequently, he had to spend the entire Sunday copying his girlfriend\'s work.
(以上兩句,用consequently連接,成為結合句。)

My wife felt strongly about the need for a trip to California.
(內人認為有必要到加州一趟。)
We held one two years ago.
(我們兩年前到加州一行。)
可組成:
My wife felt strongly about the need for a trip to California; accordingly, we held one two years ago.
(以上兩句,用accordingly連接成為compound sentence。)

I made other plans for tonight.
(今晚我有其他事情。)
I have already seen that movie.
(我已經看過那部電影。)
可組成:
I made other plans for tonight; besides, I have already seen that movie.
(這兩句用besides連接,意思更能連貫。)


(3)在獨立句中,加上附屬字眼(subordinating words)或關係代名詞(relative pronoun),使其變成附屬子句;再與主要子句連接,成為複合句(complex sentence)。

最常用的附屬字眼如:if , as if , as though , because ,since , as , so that , unless , although , while , whenever , after , before 等。
主要關係代名詞如:which , who , whose , whom , that等。

例如:
My wife served the dishes.
(內人在端菜。)
I entertained the guests.
(我在招待客人。)
可組成:
My wife served the dishes, while I entertained the guests.
(while I entertained the guests成為附屬子句,全句就是複合句,served 和 entertained兩個動作,幾乎同時發生。)

John received a package in the mail.
(John收到一個包裹。)
He opened it quickly.
(他馬上打開。)
可組成:
When John received a package in the mail, he opened it quickly.
(When John……是附屬子句;he opened……是獨立子句。)

The room was very quiet.
(房間很安靜。)
I still could not concentrate on my work.
(我仍然不能聚精會神的工作。)
可組成:
Although the room was very quiet, I still could not concentrate on my work.
(用although或even though或though,變成附屬句。通常較不重要的,成為附屬句。)

You are in doubt about your income tax.
(你對所得稅有疑問。)
You may visit the IRS staff for help.
(你可找稅務局人員幫忙。)
可組成:
When(you are)in doubt about your income tax ,(you may)visit……
(如果主要子句和附屬句主詞相同,那麼附屬句中的verb to be可省去:When in doubt about……)

Vitamin C tablets may reduce your chance of getting a cold.
(維他命C丸可能減少感冒機會。)
They are taken regularly.
(正規地服用。)
可組成:
Vitamin C tablets, if(they are)taken regularly, may reduce your chance of getting a cold.
(在附屬句裡,they是指tablets,因兩句主詞相同,可省去they are。"if taken regularly"雖可放在句尾,或句首,但放在句中較好,表示分量較輕。)

The murderer admitted his guilt.
(兇手認罪了。)
The innocent man was killed.
(無辜的男子被殺。)
可組成:
After the innocent man killed, the murderer admitted his guilt.
(附屬句after the innocent……放在句首,表示分量較重;放在句尾,表示分量輕;放在句中不好。)

Suppose there are no hamburgers.
(假如沒有漢堡。)
Suppose there are no hot dogs.
(假如沒有熱狗。)
Can a picnic really be fun?
(野餐會有樂趣嗎?)
The picnic is on this Saturday.
(野餐是在本周六。)
上面四句可組成:
In case there are no hamburgers and hot dogs, can this Saturday picnic really be fun?
(在附屬句中,可用in case,或if,或in the event that,意思大致相同。)

More colleges are creating loan plans to aid students from middle-income families.
(更多的大學制訂貸款計畫給中等收入家庭的學生。)
Middle-income families are not rich enough to pay rising college costs.
(中等收入的家庭,無能支付大學的昂貴費用。)
Middle-income families are not poor enough to qualify for assistance.
(中等收入家庭,又不是太窮而夠資格申請補助。)
以上三句,可組成:
Even though more colleges are creating loan plans to aid students from middle-income families,(yet)they are either not rich enough to pay rising college costs or not poor enough to qualify for assistance.
(加上even though,變成附屬句;主要子句裡用either……or連接。句首的yet也可省去。)

Many Chinese officials took bribes from citizens.
(許多中國官員接受百姓的賄賂。)
They misused the public trust.
(他們濫用了大眾的信任。)
可組成:
Many Chinese officials, who took bribes from citizens, misused the public trust.
(who took bribes from citizens是附屬句,當形容詞,修飾officials。加comma表示多數官員。)

The man will head the trade delegation.
(這位男子將要率領貿易訪問團。)
We met him last week.
(我們上周見過他。)
可組成:
The man whom we met last week will head the trade delegation.
(whom we met last week就是附屬句,當形容詞,修飾man;因為whom是動詞met的受詞,故用受格。)

The idea still catches on.
(這種想法還很流行。)
Mr. Wang approved of the idea.
(王先生同意這種想法。)(approved of=agreed)
可組成:
The idea which Mr. Wang approved of still catches on.
(如果只用approved,表示有決定的權力,那麼就可以說:
The idea which Mr. Wang approved still catches on.)

The project turned out successfully.
(這計畫的結果很成功。)
He worked on the project for months.
(他在這計畫上花了幾個月。)
可組成:
The project on which he worked for months turned out successfully.
(on which he worked for months是附屬句,當形容詞,修飾project。on放在which前,要比放在worked後面好。)

The customer left this morning.
(顧客今早離開。)
His coat had been stolen.
(他的大衣被偷了。)
可組成:
The customer whose coat had been stolen left this morning.
(whose coat had been stolen是附屬句,修飾customer。)


(4)使用同位語(appositives),不但能減少字數,也可使句中的名詞或代名詞,解釋得更清楚。

例如:
Mr. A used to teach (at the) high school.
(A先生過去在這所高中教書。)
He is our new professor.
(他是我們的新教授。)
可組成:
Mr. A, our new professor, used to teach (at the) high school.
(new professor就是解釋Mr. A。)
(teach high school是指教高中的程度;而teach at the high school是指在某一高中教書。)

Many students in the school play basketball.
(學校裡許多學生打籃球。)
Basketball is a popular sport in China.
(籃球在中國是流行的運\動。)
可組成:
Many students in the school play basketball, a popular sport in China.
也可用子句:
Many students in the school play basketball which (that) is a popular sport in China.
(用which或that形成附屬句,修飾basketball。)

Some African-American leaders viewed equal opportunity as the most important civil right issue.
(一些非洲裔領袖認為平等機會是人權最重要的問題。)
They are especially the more conservative.
(那些人比較保守。)
可組成:
Some African-American leaders, especially the more conservative, viewed equal opportunity as the most important civil right issue.
(有時appositives可用namely, in other words, for example, including, especially, particularly, notably, mainly來引導句子。)

Her school has denied a speaking permit to Mr. Lee.
(她的學校不准李先生演說。)
He is an outspoken politician.
(他是一位說話爽直的政客。)
可組成:
Her school has denied a speaking permit to Mr. Lee, an outspoken politician.
或Mr. Lee, an outspoken politician, has been denied a speaking permit by her school.
或A speaking permit to Mr. Lee, an outspoken politician, has been denied by her school.
或An outspoken politician, Mr. Lee has been denied a speaking permit by her school.
(同位語應靠近要解釋的名詞或代名詞;如上句an outspoken politician 放在靠近Mr. Lee。)
同位語是用comma, dash或colon分開。
comma(,)表示說話者照實說出,不會令人驚訝。
dash(─)表示加重語氣。
colon(:)表示較正式與嚴肅。
My daughter bought a beautiful vase for her best friend, her mother.
(也可用─或:)


(5)使用介系詞或介詞片語(preposition or prepositional phrase),把句子連接起來。
例如:
A dog barked at me as I walked across the street.
(我過馬路時,一隻狗對我吠叫。)
The dog was in my neighbor\'s yard.
(那隻狗在我鄰居的院子裡。)
可組成:
A dog in my neighbor\'s yard barked at me as I walked across the street.
(in my neighbor\'s yard 是介詞片語,修飾主詞dog)

The schedule of the secretarial pool was crowded.
(秘書們的工作很忙。)
No one could type this article right away.
(沒有人有空馬上打這篇文章。)
可組成:
Because of a crowded schedule of the secretarial pool, no one could type this article right away.
(也可用介詞片語due to,或on account of,修飾主詞one。)

Snakes have a fearful look.
(蛇有個可怕的長相。)
They are not really dangerous if you leave them alone.
(牠們不會真正的危險,假如你不去動牠們。)
可組成:
Despite their fearful look, snakes are not really dangerous if you leave them alone.
(也可用in spite of的介詞片語,修飾snakes)

He complied with the local law.
(他遵守當地的法律。)
He paid $100 fine because he drank beer in a public street.
(由於在公共馬路上喝啤酒,他繳了一百元罰款。)
可組成:
In compliance with the local law, he paid $100 fine for drinking beer in a public street.
(也可用according to,under或within。)

Many Chinese believe that all Americans are wealthy.
(許多中國人認為美國人都很富有。)
There are millions of Americans still in poverty.
(還有千千萬萬的美國人很貧窮。)
可組成:
Contrary to much Chinese belief that all Americans are wealthy, there are millions of Americans still in poverty.
(belief不用複數,表示one same belief。)

You may blow up the gym ball.
(你可以吹體育氣球。)
You may use a foot pump.
(你可用腳踏泵打氣。)
Or you can do it by mouth.
(你也可用嘴吹。)
But do it outside of this room.
(但要在這房間外面吹。)
可把上面四句組成:
By means of a foot pump or by mouth, you may blow up the gym ball outside of this room.
(也可以把介詞片語放在句尾。)
其他的介詞片語還有:rather than,in the absence of,in addition to,aside from,except for等。


(6)利用現在分詞片語(present participial phrase)。也就是在動詞原式後加ing,當形容詞,修飾最靠近的主詞,並且帶有主動的味道,表示一個動作與另一個動作,幾乎同時發生。

例如:
Mrs. Wang sat on the porch.
(王太太坐在走廊上。)
She watched the sunrise.
(她在看日出。)
可組成:
Sitting on the porch, Mrs. Wang watched the sunrise.
(sitting on the porch是現在分詞片語,修飾Mrs. Wang;這時sat與watched兩個動作,幾乎同時發生。)
也可用:
Watching the sunrise, Mrs. Wang sat on the porch.
(verb to be多半可變成現在分詞。其他動詞,則視情況是否合理而定。)

His wife came to the dinner party.
(他太太來參加晚餐宴會。)
She was wearing her new dress.
(她穿著她的新裝。)
可組成:
Wearing her new dress, his wife came to the dinner party.
或 His wife, wearing her new dress, came to……
(這句分詞片語,倒不能放在句尾,因為與修飾的主詞wife,相距太遠。)
或Going to the dinner party, his wife wore her new dress.
(要把動詞改為go,才較合理。)

The dog was barking angrily.
(狗叫得很厲害。)
The dog raced after the car.
(狗在追汽車。)
可組成:
Barking angrily, the dog raced after the car.
或 Racing after the car, the dog was barking angrily.
(分詞片語,都是修飾主詞dog。)

The theater closed for good.
(戲院永久關閉。)
The theater had shown the last movie.
(戲院放映最後一部電影。)
可組成:
Having shown the last movie, the theater closed for good.
(had shown的動作,比closed動作早,故用完成式的現在分詞片語。)

He went from door to door.
(他挨家挨戶地走。)
He reminded people to vote.
(他提醒人們去投票。)
可組成:
Reminding people to vote, he went from door to door.
或 Going from door to door, he reminded people to vote.

He thought that the envelope was empty.
(他以為信封是空的。)
He threw it away.
(他把它扔了。)
可組成:
Thinking that the envelope was empty, he threw it away.

The newspaper printed his letter.
(報紙登了他的信。)
It gave both sides of the argument.
(它說明雙方面的爭論。)
可組成:
The newspaper printed his letter, giving both sides of the argument.
(it是指letter;所以片語要修飾letter,不是修飾newspaper。不能說成:Giving both sides of…,the newspaper printed his letter.)

He was climbing the ladder.
(他爬梯子。)
He struck his head on the ceiling.
(他的頭打到天花板。)
可組成:
Climbing the ladder, he struck his head on the ceiling.
不能說:
Climbing the ladder, his head struck…
(片語是修飾he,不是head)
也不能說:
Striking his head on…, he climbed…
(因為不合理)

Mr. Hsu was born in Taiwan.
(徐先生在台灣出生。)
He now serves as a computer designer.
(他現在是電腦設計師。)
He was educated at Stanford University.
(他在史丹福大學受教育。)
上面三句可組成:
Serving as a computer designer, Mr. Hsu was born in Taiwan and educated at Stanford University.
或 Mr. Hsu, serving as…, was born in…
但不能放在句尾,因為與所修飾的主詞Hsu,相距太遠。

Mr. Chen expects a letter from his girlfriend.
(陳先生期待女友的來信。)
He constantly checks his mailbox.
(他常常看他的信箱。)
可組成:
Expecting a letter from his girlfriend, Mr. Chen constantly checks his mailbox.
或Checking constantly his mailbox, Mr. Chen expects a letter from his girlfriend.
或Mr. Chen, expecting a letter…, constantly checks his mailbox.
或Mr. Chen, checking constantly…, expects a letter from...(片語都靠近主詞Mr. Chen)


(7)使用過去分詞片語(past participial phrase),也就是動詞後面有ed,en,或n,以及不規則動詞。有「被動」的味道。其動作可能與另一動作同時發生或更早發生。

例如:
Mr. A gave the speech.(A先生演講。)
He was cheered by the audience.(他受聽眾歡呼。)
可組成:
Cheered by the audience, Mr. A gave the speech.(把第二句的 He was 刪去)
或Mr. A, cheered by…, gave the speech.
(cheered by the audience是過去分詞片語,當形容詞,修飾主詞Mr. A)
(如果把片語放在句尾也不好,因為與主詞Mr. A相距太遠。這與現在分詞片語的原則相同。)

The ship was badly damaged by the storm.
(船被暴風造成很大的損害。)
The ship finally reached a safe harbor.
(最後船抵達安全的港口。)
可組成:
Badly damaged by the storm, the ship finally reached a safe harbor.
(Badly damaged by the storm 修飾主詞 the ship)
或The ship, badly damaged…, finally reached a safe harbor.

The gift was wrapped in red paper.
(禮物用紅紙包著。)
Miss Chen accepted the gift.
(陳小姐接受了禮物。)
可組成:
Miss Chen accepted the gift wrapped in red paper.
(可見句中的verb to be,都可刪去,變成過去分詞片語。wrapped in red paper是修飾gift,故不能放在句首,否則變成修飾Miss Chen,就不合理了。)

Her daughter has been discouraged by her poor grades.
(她女兒因成績不好而洩氣。)
She does not want to go to school.
(她不想上學了。)
可組成:
Discouraged by her poor grades, her daughter does not want to go to school.
或Her daughter, discouraged by…, does not…
(但不能放在句尾,否則分詞片語變成修飾school。)

The swimming pool is operated by YMCA.
(游泳池係由YMCA掌管。)
It is open only to its members.
(它只對會員開放。)
可組成:
Operated by YMCA, the pool is open only to its members.(修飾pool)
或The pool, operated by…, is open…
(但分詞片語不能放在句尾,否則變成修飾members。)

The shirt was spattered with red paint.
(襯衣濺到紅漆。)
It could not be worn.
(不能再穿了。)
可組成:
Spattered with red paint, the shirt could not be worn.
或The shirt, spattered with…, could not…
(分詞片語,緊接著要修飾的shirt,當然更好。)
不能說:
Spattered with…, I could not wear the shirt.

John\'s hat was chewed to pieces by the dog.
(John的帽子,被狗咬得碎碎的。)
John could not wear his hat.
可組成:
Chewed to pieces by the dog, John\'s hat could not be worn.
或John\'s hat, chewed to pieces…, could not…
不能說:
Chewed to pieces…, John could not wear his hat.
(因為不是John被狗咬得粉身碎骨。)
可見,不論是現在分詞片語,或是過去分詞片語,都是緊靠著要修飾的名詞或代名詞。


(8)使用動名詞(gerund)和不定詞(infinitive),做為名詞的代替,(noun substitutes)。

例如:
The dog howled and whined at night.
(夜晚狗在吠叫和哀號。)
This made our neighbors upset.
(這使我們鄰居不高興。)
可組成:
The dog\'s howling and whining at night made our neighbors upset.
(把動詞原式 howl 和 whine,加ing,當名詞用。)
或用不定詞:
For the dog, to howl and to whine at night made our neighbors upset.
(在動詞原式前加to,就成為不定詞,也可當名詞用。)

Many people treat illness through the mind.
(許多人經由心理去治病。)
This seems to be a modern way in medicine.
(這似乎是現代醫藥之道。)
可組成:
Treating illness through the mind seems to be a modern way in medicine.
(treating 是動名詞)
或To treat illness through the mind seems to be…
(to treat 是不定詞,當主詞)

Some people believe Japan did not kill 35 million Chinese people.
(有些人相信日本沒有殺害3500萬中國人。)
They ignore the true history of World War Ⅱ.
(他們忽視了二次世界大戰的真實歷史。)
可組合成:
To believe that Japan did not kill 35 million Chinese people is to ignore the true history of World War Ⅱ.
(使用不定詞 to believe, to ignore 作為名詞)
或Believing that Japan did not…is ignoring the true history…
(Believing 和 ignoring 都是動名詞)

Mr. Li bought a beautiful house.
(李先生買了一棟漂亮的房子。)
He wanted to impress his friends and relatives.
(他要使親友們留下深刻印象。)
可組成:
Mr. Li bought a beautiful house to impress his friends and relatives.
或To impress his friends and relatives, Mr. Li bought a beautiful house.
(表示一種目的或期望,多用不定詞。)
不定詞和動名詞的詳細用法,容後專文討論。
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